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WHAT IS MARIJUANA?

WHAT IS MARIJUANA?

Marijuana is the word used to describe the dried flowers, seeds and leaves of the Indian hemp plant. On the street, it is called by many other names, such as: astro turf, bhang, dagga, dope, ganja, grass, hemp, home grown, J, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, roach, Texas tea and weed.

Hashish is a related form of the drug, made from the resins of the Indian hemp plant. Also called chocolate, hash or shit, it is on average six times stronger than marijuana.

“Cannabis” describes any of the different drugs that come from Indian hemp, including marijuana and hashish.

Regardless of the name, this drug is a hallucinogen—a substance which distorts how the mind perceives the world you live in.

The chemical in cannabis that creates this distortion is known as “THC.” The amount of THC found in any given batch of marijuana may vary substantially, but overall, the percentage of THC has increased in recent years.

HOW IS IT USED?

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world. A survey conducted in 2007 found that 14.4 million individuals in the US alone had smoked marijuana at least once during the previous month.

Marijuana is usually smoked as a cigarette (joint), but may also be smoked in a pipe. Less often, it is mixed with food and eaten or brewed as tea. Sometimes users open up cigars and remove the tobacco, replacing it with pot—called a “blunt.” Joints and blunts are sometimes laced with other, more powerful drugs, such as crack cocaine or PCP (phencyclidine, a powerful hallucinogen).

When a person smokes a joint, he usually feels its effect within minutes. The immediate sensations—increased heart rate, lessened coordination and balance, and a “dreamy,” unreal state of mind—peak within the first 30 minutes. These short-term effects usually wear off in two to three hours, but they could last longer, depending on how much the user takes, the potency of THC and the presence of other drugs added into the mix.

As the typical user inhales more smoke and holds it longer than he would with a cigarette, a joint creates a severe impact on one’s lungs. Aside from the discomfort that goes with sore throats and chest colds, it has been found that consuming one joint gives as much exposure to cancer-producing chemicals as smoking five cigarettes.

The mental consequences of marijuana use are equally severe. Marijuana smokers have poorer memories and mental aptitude than do non-users.

Animals given marijuana by researchers have even suffered structural damage to the brain.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/marijuana.html

Cannabis sativa, marihuana, hemp, plant

Cannabis sativa, marihuana, hemp, plant Photo/Libor Sojka (CTK via AP Images)

Pedometer usage

red-pedometerwalktowellnesspedometer-clipart-1d6dc209f-4d32-42f0-a2a4-4bdad13bbde4._CB330499640__SR300,300_920x920

SEA CUCUMBER benefits

Sea cucumber is highly nutritious. It contains no cholesterol and is rich in nutrients such as protein, vitamin B1, B2, nicotinic acid, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, vanadium, zinc, potassium,
chromium, chondroitin sulphate and mucopolysaccharides acid. Its protein contains amino acid needed by our body such as orginine, cystine and histidine.
A BREAKTHROUGH IN TODAY’S SCIENCE
Luxor Serigama Gamat Jelly is the best way to benefit from the miraculous properties of the sea cucumber.
Luxor Serigama Gamat Jelly is Certified HALAL by JAKIM, prepared and bottled in our very own GMP factory with the latest technologically advanced equipment and methods. The whole manufacturing process is overseen and monitored by a panel of Scientists who are experts in this field.
As testament to Luxor’s commitment to quality, we only use the golden sea cucumber in our products.
The golden sea cucumber is proven to have the highest therapeutic value – ensuring the best for our customers.
The Chinese has an old saying “On Land there is Ginseng, the sea is Sea Cucumber”. The oldest medicinal book, crowned Sea Cucumber as the “The King among the Seng.”
Gamat The Traditional Healer from The Sea.
Gamat has been used by the Malay community as a Traditional Medicine for more than 500 years.
Till today, gamat is renowned for its miraculous healing powers.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SEA CUCUMBERS
When cut into half, the sea cucumbers can survive as two separate animals or it can rejoin back as one again within 15 minutes. When sea cucumber is cut horizontally into half and with all the intestines remove, it can still survive as two separate animals. Within 3 to 6 months, it can grow back into a
full sea cucumber with all the intestines and internal organs in tact.
This is because the sea cucumber contains a CELL-GROWTH FACTOR which has the ability to accelerate the regeneration of cells, bones, collagen and skin.
Imagine how wonderful it would be if you CONSUME sea cucumbers and these miraculous properties are YOURS TOO !!!
LUXOR JELLY GAMAT CONTAINS :
86.6% Protein (80% of which is COLLAGEN)
Your body needs protein to build and repair tissues.
Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood.
Collagen makes up 75% of our skin, collagen is required to beautify the skin and
increase the healing process of wounds.
. beautifies the skin
. slow down aging, reduce the formation of facial lines
and wrinkles
. increases the healing process of wound
. relieves gastric pains
. is good for the lungs
. Strengthen the immune system
8% Mucopolysaccharide (MSP)
. helps in blood circulation
. “pain-killer” agent
. Adds elasticity and resiliency to
skin and other connective tissues.
relaxes the mind
. Important for the healty function of a joints.
Chondroitin Sulphate and Glucosamine (GAGs)
. These are substances found naturally in the body,
glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that is believed to play
an important role in cartilage formation and repair.
Chondroitin Sulphate is part of a large protein molecule that
gives cartilage elasticity.
. Relieve/eases osteoarthritic pain
eases pain in the joint
. Stimulates the formation and repair of cartilage.
. Helps bone and teeth growth.
. increases the insulin level
Omega 3
Omega 3 protects the heart and decreases the cholesterol level.
. Lowers/decreases blood cholesterol level
. Protects arteries
. Protect and prevents heart diseases
. Improves mental health
Active Element
. Prevent bacteria, yeast & fungus growth
. Anti-tumour
6 Types of Minerals – produces red blood cells, decreases the
glucose level
Calcium
. Build bones and teeth
. Maintain blood circulation
. Regulate heart beat.
Iron
. Important in oxygen transportation
and metabolism
Needed to form healthy red blood cells
Selenium
. Acts as an antioxidant
. Protects cells against the effects of free radicals
. Prevent cell damage
Iodine
. Essential for normal thyroid function
Vanadium
. Reducing the production of cholesterol
. Involved in catecholamine and lipid metabolism
and red blood cell production.
Chromium
. Increases the number of insulin receptors on
the cell membrance and enhances insulin binding to cells
. Lowers blood sugar level
. Improves diabetic problem

 

HEALTH WONDERS
The sea cucumber is so renowned for so many breakthroughs, that it can benefit everyone – young and old. It has proven breakthroughs for the following medical problems :
Pain Relief : Great relief for arthritis, rheumatism, gastric and other pains.
Improvement in condition : Diabetes, High blood pressure, hypertension, heart problems, high
cholesterol.
Respiratory problems : Asthma, Allergy, Cough, Sinusitis
Healing : Excellent for diabetic wounds. Fast recovery, healing from illness, whether surgical or after operation and after birth. Used to treat cut, sores, open wounds and any inflammation. Treatment for internal injuries like peptic ulcers, etc
Beauty : Amazing results from various skin problems, skin
looks younger and is free from acne, scars,
pigmentation and wrinkles.
As reported by Ethan Evers, author of “The Eden Prescription, previous research on sea cucumber has demonstrated its ability to kill lung, breast, prostate, skin, colon, pancreatic, and liver cancer cells.
These extracts have also proven effective in killing leukemia and gioblastoma cells. Looks like we can
add yet another food to the list of anti-cancer foods.
Scientists believe a key compound known as frondoside A to be responsible. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid, diverse organic compounds found in the essential oils and oleoresins of plants.
This latest study, published in PLoS One, has confirmed just how powerful frondoside A truly is.
Researchers found it to kill 95% of ER+ breast cancer cells, 95% of liver cancer cells, 90% of melanoma cells, and 85-88% of three different types of lung cancer.
As Evers reports:
“But the benefits of this compound don’t just stop at directly inducing programmed cell death (apoptosis). It also inhibits angiogenesis (the ability of tumors to grow new blood vessels to get their food) and stops cancer metastasizing by impeding cell migration and invasion. Even more intriguing is the ability of frondoside A to activate our immune system’s natural killer cells to attack cancer cells.
This has been shown for breast cancer in particular but may also apply to all cancers, because it involves the immune system and not cancer cells directly. This may partially explain why frondoside A was so effective at shrinking lung tumors in mice that it rivaled chemo drugs in performance.”
When given to mice with non-small cell lung cancer, frondoside A was found to shrink tumors by 40% in only 10 days. Traditional chemo drugs shrunk the tumors by 47 percent, but the risks of chemo treatment are far greater than any side-effects or risks of sea cucumber. (Namely because there are no known risks associated with sea cucumbers). In addition, the amount of frondoside A needed to achieve such results was miniscule—less than a single milligram for an adult weighing 165 pounds.
“Journal of Neuroendocrine Tumours and Pancreatic Diseases and Sciences” states that “extracts from an edible, non-toxic sea cucumber effectively caused cell damage and cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells”. The results of this study are encouraging for the potential use of sea cucumber extract as a dietary supplement which may be used in the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer. Sea cucumber extracts potently kill multiple cancer cell lines
“Many of these regenerative mechanisms are the same as those being used by other animals to heal and repair – this includes us humans,” “Sea cucumbers will probably provide us with the key to deciphering how to regenerate our tissues, or at least find out what is needed to do this.”
There have been many promising advances in regenerative tissue growth, but work has been heart-breakingly slow for people suffering from kidney failure or macular degeneration. Much of the
work has been done with salamanders, but the paper’s authors argue that sea cucumbers could be a goldmine of information.
“Sea cucumbers should be viewed as the tissue regeneration equivalent of the squid for our knowledge of nerves and Drosophila for genes and the genome,” said García-Arrarás. “They can help us learn to fix ourselves.”

 

sea6656294dried-sea-cucumber

What is Buah DABAI?

Dabai1

What is Buah DABAI?

Dabai is one of many exotic fruits in Sarawak or commonly known as ‘Black Olive’ (Or Kana in Hokkien). Then again, it is not an olive.

 

So what is it anyway?

The Buah Dabai scientific name is Canarium, consists of 75 types of species from tropical and subtropical areas. Surprisingly, the Canarium family tree is under the Burseraceae, which is a native to the tropical Africa, southern Asia, and Australia, as well as places like Nigeria-east to Madagascar, India, Southern China, Indonesia and the Philippines.

The fruit itself is so large and grows on thick green trees up to 40-50 meters height, with alternate, pinnate leaves.

Its furry leaves are thin and twigs covered with golden brown.

How do I prepare?

Buah Dabai is another well-known dish among Malaysians. Its preparation will take a minute or two.

Step one, all what you need is to fill it up with water. Not too much hot water of course. The level of water must be slightly less than the amount of Dabai inside it. Cover the container lid so that heat will be trap inside.

Then you just have to fill it up with black soy sauce. At the same time, you can choose to make it salty or sweet. Just add salt for salty and sugar to make it sweet.

The final step is to wait. After two minutes have passed, you may open it. The smell of Dabai aroma is so strong that you will find it hard to resist. Then again, the very fragrant of Dabai depends on your preparation, either sweet or salty.

If you are creative enough, you might want to try different style. Another method of preparing it is by cooking it with our very well-known elegant yet simplest traditional dish. That is the Nasi Goreng (Fried Rice).

Malaysia is very well-known for the Traditional Nasi-Goreng. Be it Chinese style, Malay Style, Indian Style, Tribal Style and even the Free Style! The dish is so simple and flexible that it has no specific methods of preparing it.

All what you need to do is, while cooking your fried rice, as usual, boil your Dabai first and peel off its outer layer. Then dunk everything inside your fried rice but not the seed. Now, your fried rice is known as Nasi Goreng Dabai.

The seed itself however, is eatable. You will have to cut it into half and dig out the flesh inside it using tooth pick. The Dabai inner seed flesh contains lots of calcium which is good for health!

Where to buy?

Dabai, just like the Durian, is a not your typical seasonal fruit. You will only get it once a year.

The price of Dabai ranges differently in kilograms and depends on the seller.

Normally, the best quality Dabai comes from places in Sarawak such as Sibu, Betong, Kanowit, Sarikei, Oya and Kapit. The freshness of Dabai depends on the how the packaging is done. If you are a far traveller, and you want to try out the Dabai by bringing it back home, you need to pack it properly and make sure that it is not exposed to heat. If you do, the Dabai will eventually cook.

It is a very sensitive fruit even with very little heat exposure, the fruits will be cook! So do pack and wrap it well.

Why is there a yellow and red flesh Dabai?

There is no need to fret on the colour. If it is yellow, the flesh is usually thicker than the red ones

http://blog.borneotropicaladventures.com/2012/12/black-and-elegant-buah-dabai-canarium/

 

Ka Lang(Olive 橄榄), Buah Dabai

This fruit(or vegetable?) is very common in Sibu or the Sarawak and if you go to central market, you will definitely find stalls selling it. We call it Ka Lang(In Foochow), in Malay it is known as Buah Dabai(Video), if I translate from Foochow to Chinese,it is  橄榄 and again if I translate to English, it is Olive. This is definitely not the one that make the olive oil that you can buy in the market. The taste is totally different from normal Olive and Sarawak Olive. It can be found along the riverbanks in Sibu, Kapit and Sarikei divisions.

Research by ARC, Semongok have shown that dabai fruit is nutritious with high values of energy (339kcal), protein (3.8%), fat (26.2%), fiber, and minerals such as potassium (810mg), calcium (200mg), magnesium (106mg) and vitamin E (257ppm) as compared to other underutilized fruit. Current studies by UPM, Serdang have revealed that the main fatty acid composition of dabai – palmitic acid (37-39%), Oleic acid (38-42%) and Linoleic acid (15-18%) is very similar to that of palm oil. Furthermore, these studies also revealed that fruit possesses high antioxidant properties with the skin exhibiting the greatest concentration. The high antioxidant capacity of dabai fruit is due to its polyphenol components. The phenolic compounds in it include anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Dabai fruit contained 2.05-2.49mg anthocyanin/g dried weight as compared to grape of 0.75-0.80mg. Dabai may be a promising source of natural antioxidant phenolics for nutraceutical and functional food industry.

 

Health Benefits of Prunes

Health Benefits of Prunes

Prunes
Prunes — or dried plums — are considered one of the healthiest foods there is, but exactly why are prunes good for you? And why are prunes good for constipation? This article discusses the health benefits of eating prunes, including their ability to relieve constipation, provide antioxidant protection, prevent pre-mature aging, promote cardiovascular health, and reduce the risk of cancer and osteoporosis. Nutrition facts for prunes (GI rating, GL rating, nutrient content, etc) are provided at the end of the article.
Antioxidant superfood naturally rich in hydroxycinnamic acids and anthocyanins

A study conducted by researchers from Tufts University in Boston ranked prunes, or dried plums, as #1 food in terms of antioxidant capacity. Using a laboratory analysis called ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbency Capacity), the researchers found that prunes had more than twice the antioxidant capacity of other high ranking foods such as blueberries and raisins. With a score of 5770 ORAC units per 100 grams, the antioxidant power of prunes also topped that of fresh plums, which scored 949 on the ORAC scale.

Antioxidants are compounds that help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, unstable molecules that result from normal cell metabolism, smoking, pollution and UV irradiation. Research suggests that excess free radicals may contribute to pre-mature aging, wrinkling of the skin, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer.

Much of the antioxidant power of prunes can be attributed to the high levels of hydroxycinnamic acids (types of phenolic compounds) they contain. The hydroxycinnamic acids present in prunes include neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, both of which appear to be highly effective at scavenging free radicals. In addition to hydroxycinnamic acids, prunes and plums are rich in anthocyanins, flavonoid pigments with strong antioxidant properties.

Time-honored constipation remedy packed with fiber and the natural laxative sorbitol

You probably already know that these humble fruits are good for the bowels, but exactly how do prunes relieve constipation? This is how: Prunes are a good source of dietary fiber, with 100 grams of prunes containing approximately 6.1 grams of fiber.

Dietary fiber is the part of plant foods that the enzymes in your body cannot digest and that is therefore not absorbed into the bloodstream. As a result, fiber remains in the colon where it absorbs water and softens the stool, thereby providing health benefits for those suffering from constipation.

In addition, prunes and prune juice contain sorbitol (14.7 and 6.1 grams per 100 grams, respectively). Sorbitol is a mild colonic stimulant that helps reduce the transit time of stool and consequently the risk of constipation, colorectal cancer and hemorrhoids. Also the neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids present in prunes may improve their laxative action.
Protection against osteoporosis and osteopenia

A clinical study conducted at Florida State University (FSU) and published in Aging Research Review suggests that dried plums may be able to reverse osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Those women that were asked to eat 100 grams of dried plums per day had improved bone formation markers after only three months, compared to a control group who were eating 75 grams of dried apples.

These health benefits of prunes may be linked to their high concentration of the trace element boron which is postulated to play a role in prevention of osteoporosis and osteopenia. A single serving of prunes (100 grams) fulfils the daily requirement for boron. Also the potassium found in prunes may help support bone health.
Prune Nutrition Facts

Glycemic Index (GI) Rating: Although rich in simple sugars, prunes do not cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels, possibly because of their high fiber, fructose, and sorbitol content. Therefore, prunes have a low GI rating of 29. The Glycemic Load (GL) of prunes is 9.57 (low).
Calories: Prunes have about 240 calories per 100 grams (67 calories per 1 ounce).
Macronutrients: Prunes are rich in carbohydrates. They are also an excellent source of dietary fiber (6.1 grams per 100 grams). Prunes contain very little protein and hardly any fat.
Vitamins: Prunes are a good source of vitamin A and vitamin K.
Minerals and Trace Elements: Prunes are a good source of potassium, copper, boron and magnesium.
Phenolic Compounds: Prunes are rich in phenolic compounds (184 mg/100 g) such as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids.

article-2643715-001835D000000258-756_634x334 prunes
Source: http://www.healwithfood.org/health-benefits/prunes.php#ixzz3nefhL63u

Source: http://www.healwithfood.org/health-benefits/prunes.php#ixzz3nefW0o55

Good news! Not making your bed kills the dust mites! 

Good news! Not making your bed kills the dust mites!

By ROBIN YAPP, Daily Mail

Last updated at 08:30 18 January 2005

For anyone who can’t be bothered to make the bed in the morning – and that includes 99 per cent of all known teenagers – there is welcome news today.

Rather than just being slovenly, you are helping to get rid of dust mites.

Experts warn that the mites, which can cause a host of allergies, thrive in the moist and warm conditions created by a well-made bed with tightly-drawn sheets and blankets. By contrast, a messy bed in which the sheets are simply tossed aside in the morning and left as they fall creates dry conditions which cause the little blighters to dehydrate and die.

1.5million dust mites in your bed

Lead researcher Dr Stephen Pretlove, a building scientist at Kingston University’s School of Architecture, said that the average bed could be home to up to 1.5million dust mites.

They can trigger asthma and have also been linked to eczema and a condition called perennial rhinitis, described as being a type of ‘year round hayfever’.

“House dust mites feed on scales of human skin so they love to share our beds,” said Dr Pretlove. “The allergens they produce are easily inhaled during sleep and are a major cause of illnesses.

“We know that mites can only survive by taking in water from the atmosphere using glands on the outside of their body. Something as simple as leaving a bed unmade during the day can remove moisture from the sheets and mattress so the mites will dehydrate and eventually die.”

Dr Pretlove said that conditions for mites are best while we are actually in our beds, thanks to the warmth and moisture we create.

He has teamed up with a team of entomologists and zoologists from London and Cambridge to develop a computer model showing how factors such as ventilation, insulation and heating can influence mite numbers in houses of different shapes and sizes.

Brave volunteers

As the next stage of their project, they have recruited 36 volunteers from around the UK who have had mite populations of varying sizes introduced into their homes so that researchers can monitor how they respond to different environmental conditions.

The mites are placed in tea-bag like ‘pockets’ which allow them to experience the warmth and moisture of the environment without being able to escape.

Dr Pretlove said the findings could help create healthy homes and reduce the cost to the NHS of treating allergies, which now tops £1billion a year.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-334487/Good-news-Not-making-bed-kills-dust-mites.html#ixzz3lU3KkIbl

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Good news! Not making your bed kills the dust mites!

By ROBIN YAPP, Daily Mail

Last updated at 08:30 18 January 2005
For anyone who can’t be bothered to make the bed in the morning – and that includes 99 per cent of all known teenagers – there is welcome news today.

Rather than just being slovenly, you are helping to get rid of dust mites.

Experts warn that the mites, which can cause a host of allergies, thrive in the moist and warm conditions created by a well-made bed with tightly-drawn sheets and blankets. By contrast, a messy bed in which the sheets are simply tossed aside in the morning and left as they fall creates dry conditions which cause the little blighters to dehydrate and die.

1.5million dust mites in your bed

Lead researcher Dr Stephen Pretlove, a building scientist at Kingston University’s School of Architecture, said that the average bed could be home to up to 1.5million dust mites.

They can trigger asthma and have also been linked to eczema and a condition called perennial rhinitis, described as being a type of ‘year round hayfever’.

“House dust mites feed on scales of human skin so they love to share our beds,” said Dr Pretlove. “The allergens they produce are easily inhaled during sleep and are a major cause of illnesses.

“We know that mites can only survive by taking in water from the atmosphere using glands on the outside of their body. Something as simple as leaving a bed unmade during the day can remove moisture from the sheets and mattress so the mites will dehydrate and eventually die.”

Dr Pretlove said that conditions for mites are best while we are actually in our beds, thanks to the warmth and moisture we create.

He has teamed up with a team of entomologists and zoologists from London and Cambridge to develop a computer model showing how factors such as ventilation, insulation and heating can influence mite numbers in houses of different shapes and sizes.

Brave volunteers

As the next stage of their project, they have recruited 36 volunteers from around the UK who have had mite populations of varying sizes introduced into their homes so that researchers can monitor how they respond to different environmental conditions.

The mites are placed in tea-bag like ‘pockets’ which allow them to experience the warmth and moisture of the environment without being able to escape.

Dr Pretlove said the findings could help create healthy homes and reduce the cost to the NHS of treating allergies, which now tops £1billion a year.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-334487/Good-news-Not-making-bed-kills-dust-mites.html#ixzz3lU2ucDuF
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Papaya Enzyme Side Effects and Warnings

Papaya Enzyme Side Effects and Warnings


Side effects of Papaw enzymeWhile there are many benefits to eating papaya fruit, there are also a few potential papaya enzyme side effects and warnings to be aware of. This is particularly the case with regards to the green unripen fruit, papaya seeds and papain enzyme digestive supplements.

Let’s have a look at some of the possible side effects of papaya enzymes and when it may be best to limit their use.

Pregnancy Precautions with Papaya

Green papaya latex, which is rich in the main papaya enzyme papain, has been traditionally used by various cultures in Asia to induce a miscarriage during pregnancy.

For this purpose it was often applied directly to the uterus, but food forms such as green papaya salad, the seeds of papaya in the parasite killing papaya seed smoothieahead, as well as supplements containing papain enzyme are best avoided by pregnant women.

This warning does not extend to a fully ripe fresh fruit with no green on it. These papaya fruit contain much lower levels of papain and are generally considered very healthy for pregnant women with it’s rich antioxidant and vitamin content and many other health benefits.

Papain, Papaya Seeds and the Menstrual Cycle

Associated with the precautions of using papain when trying to become pregnant, papaya seeds, green papaya and other potent sources of papaya enzymes may interfer with a woman’s menstrual cycle if taken in large and regular doses.

One research paper on the subject suggested two possible mechanisms for how papain or associated enyzmes within papaya seeds and green papaya could have an effect on normal menstration – “The tropical fruit contains the enzyme papain which suppresses progesterone, a hormone needed to prepare the uterus for conception and maintain pregnancy. Another possibility is that papain may break down a membrane vital to the development of the fetus”.

Once again, fully ripe papaya would not contain enough enzymes to have any effect on the menstrual cycle.

Papaya Enzyme and Breast Feeding

Some sources advise against using papaya enzymes, unripe papaya or even the ripe fruit during breast feeding, though no specific reasons or supporting research is given why.

Side Effects of Papaya EnzymesInterestingly, green papaya salads and soups are popular across Asia as a galactagogue, a substance that increases milk flow from the breast. To this end, eating the fruit while it is still green and full of papain enzyme is often recommended for breast feeding women.

Many Asian women also eat green papaya salad regularly, even when not breast feeding, believing the papaya enzymes in it can lead to an increase in breast size over time.

Papaya Seeds as a Contraceptive for Men

Along with their well known effects on the reproductive cycles of women, papaya seeds in particular can effect male fertility and have been traditionally used as a form of birth control for men.

There’s a detailed look at using papaya seeds as a male contracteptive including supporting research here.

On the other, eating papaya with its many nutrients and enzymes is often said to help prevent gastric ulcers and heal minor stomach problems. It may do this by both increasing the protective mucus secretions in the stomach and, due to its ability to speed up the breakdown of protein, lessening the amount of time hydrochloric acid sits in the stomach.

While the occasional ripe fruit should not cause problems, talk to your doctor if you are being treated for a stomach ulcer and are thinking of using papaya enzymes with papain for digestion.

Papain and Blood Thinning Medications

The papain enzyme may increase the blood thinning effects of medications such as Warfarin and other anticoagulants, including daily aspirin taken for this purpose. As such it is not recommended for use at the same time as a course of these drugs. It is best not to take papain for several days before major surgery for the same reason.

People with blood clotting disorders, such as thrombosis and hemophilia, are also advised to avoid papain and green papaya. In cases like these, and any of the above, it is best to discuss using papaya enzymes with a knowledgeable healthcare professional.

Papaya Allergies

Papaya and especially the green fruit high in enzymes should be avoided by anyone with a latex allergy. Papaya allergies are rare, but people who experience allergic reactions to papaw may also have an adverse reaction to pineapples, avocados, bananas, figs, kiwi fruit, melons and possibly other tropical fruit as well and should use any of these with caution and watch for symptoms.

Allergic reactions symptoms, while once again very uncommon, can include: swelling or itching of the face, lips, tongue and throat; rashes that appear shortly after consumption; dizziness; difficulty swallowing; and abdominal pain. There may be other side effects of a papaya or latex allergies so seek medical advice as soon as possible if you have any unusual reactions after eating any of the fruit listed above. For the vast majority of people, papaya and the enzymes from the unripe fruit are extremely beneficial and a very healthy addition to your diet. Effective green papaya digestive enzymes are available if you can’t get the fresh fruit all the time, but I’d still recommend looking out of it and trying it when you can.

Do you have any experiences with using papaya enzyme that you’d like to share? I’d be interested to hear how it worked for you personally, both as a digestive aid and for other health purposes.

http://superfoodprofiles.com/papaya-enzyme-side-effects-warnings

Papaya and Stomach Ulcers

There are mixed reports from health resources regarding papaya enzyme and ulcers. On the one hand, people suffering from severe stomach ulcers are sometimes advised to avoid the fruit, particularly when it’s green, as well as any digestive enzymes with papain.

How an African slave helped Boston fight smallpox

How an African slave helped Boston fight smallpox

Centuries before Ebola, Cotton Mather faced down another global epidemic with a health tactic from abroad

By Ted Widmer | OCTOBER 17, 2014

cotton-mather
Cotton Mather’s successful smallpox campaign was based on inoculation advice he received from a slave named Onesimus.
UNIVERSAL HISTORY ARCHIVE/GETTY

THE SPREAD of Ebola has added a scary twist to one of the clichés of our age: that we live in a world of shrinking distances. Boston isn’t one of the five US airports where officials will aim an infrared thermometer gun at anyone coming off a plane from West Africa. But passengers who reached Logan Airport with flu-like symptoms last week were escorted to hospitals by a team in hazmat suits, and our eyes now scan the horizon nervously, wondering about every new arrival.

New as it might seem, this anxiety about our hyperconnectivity has a long lineage: In the 17th and 18th centuries, Bostonians felt a similar terror. The ships that streamed into Boston Harbor from around the Atlantic world carried a vital lifeblood—the commerce that built Boston—but they also carried the microbes of infectious disease.
The most fearsome of all was smallpox, the disease that wiped out so many Native Americans at the time of European settlement, and that also killed large numbers of the English. A terrible epidemic came in 1721, infecting roughly half of Boston’s 11,000 residents. But Boston’s approach to public health changed that year, thanks to an experimental strategy for inoculating citizens with small traces of the disease.

The idea behind this radical new treatment came from Africa, specifically from a slave named Onesimus, who shared his knowledge with Cotton Mather, the town’s leading minister and his legal owner. Boston still suffered dreadfully, but thanks to Onesimus and Mather, the terror linked to smallpox began to recede after Africans rolled up their sleeves—literally—to show Boston how inoculation worked. The story of how Boston began to overcome smallpox illustrates the strife that epidemics can cause, but also the encouraging notion that humans can communicate remedies as quickly as they communicate germs—and that the solutions we most need often come from the places we least expect to find them.

TO EARLY New Englanders, smallpox was one of life’s many imponderables. No one really knew where the disease came from. Was it carried by bad air, or sent as a form of divine retribution for personal failings? Boston had plenty to fear on both counts—one observer described the town at low tide as “a very stinking puddle.” Medical knowledge was still primitive; a learned scientist, John Winthrop Jr., kept what he thought was a unicorn horn in his cabinet. For most, the first line of defense was the prayer book.

Disease was an inseparable part of the New England story from the beginning. It arrived wirh the Great Migration of the 1630s, aboard the very ships that brought so many families to New England. It returned in 1666, and again in 1678, when an epidemic killed 340 Bostonians. A young Cotton Mather wrote, “Boston burying-places never filled so fast.” With time, local leaders began to develop crude public health policies—burying the dead quickly, flying red flags over houses affected, and requiring ships with sick sailors to stop at Spectacle Island in Boston Harbor. But as Bostonians knew, the next epidemic was always just over the horizon. In 1721, on April 22, the HMS Seahorse arrived from the West Indies with smallpox on board, and despite precautions, a full-blown epidemic started.

This time, however, the city was better prepared, thanks to several unlikely heroes. Cotton Mather is not always the easiest figure to admire. The scion of a dynasty of ministers, he fought a lengthy rear-guard action against time, trying to stanch the ebbing of power among the city’s religious authorities. But he was surprisingly modern in some ways, and paid attention to the new forms of knowledge coming in on those ships. Another contradiction lay in his racial attitudes—his writings suggest that, more than most of his contemporaries, he admired Africans, but he also accepted slavery, and had raised no objections when his congregation presented him with a young slave in 1706. He named him Onesimus, after a slave belonging to St. Paul.

Mather had come close to choosing a career in medicine, and devoured the scientific publications of the Royal Society in London. As the society began to turn its attention to inoculation practices around the world, Mather realized that he had an extraordinary expert living in his household. Onesimus was a “pretty Intelligent Fellow,” it had become clear to him. When asked if he’d ever had smallpox, Onesimus answered “Yes and No,” explaining that he had been inoculated with a small amount of smallpox, which had left him immune to the disease. Fascinated, Mather asked for details, which Onesimus provided, and showed him his scar. We can almost hear Onesimus speaking in Mather’s accounts, for Mather took the unusual step of writing out his words with the African accent included—the key phrase was, “People take Juice of Small-Pox; and Cutty-skin, and Putt in a Drop.”

Excited, he investigated among other Africans in Boston and realized that it was a widespread practice; indeed, a slave could be expected to fetch a higher price with a scar on his arm, indicating that he was immune. Mather sent the Royal Society his own reports from the wilds of America, eager to prove the relevance of Boston (and by extension, Cotton Mather) to the global crusade against infectious disease. His interviews with Onesimus were crucial. In 1716, writing to an English friend, he promised that he would be ready to promote inoculation if smallpox ever visited the city again.

When it did, Mather pursued a determined course of action, asking doctors to inoculate their patients and ministers to support the plan. His call was answered by only one person, an apothecary named Zabdiel Boylston, who began by inoculating his 6-year-old son, Thomas, and two slaves.

As word spread of the new medicine, the people of Boston were terrified and angry. According to Mather, they “raised an horrid Clamour.” Their rage came from many sources; fear that inoculation might spread smallpox further; knowledge that the bubonic plague was on the rise in France; and a righteous fury that it was immoral to tamper with God’s judgment in this way. There was a racial tone to their response as well, as they rebelled against an idea that was not only foreign, but African (one critic, an eminent doctor, attacked Mather for his “Negroish” thinking). Some of Mather’s opponents compared inoculation to what we would now call terrorism—as if “a man should willfully throw a Bomb into a Town.” Indeed, one local terrorist did exactly that, throwing a bomb through Mather’s window, with a note that read, “COTTON MATHER, You Dog, Dam You; I’l inoculate you with this, with a Pox to you.”

Another attack came from the New-England Courant, a newspaper that debuted on Aug. 7, as smallpox raged. The brainchild of a satirical editor, James Franklin, it was unlike anything Boston had seen before, ridiculing an older generation perennially telling everyone else how to behave. Inevitably, it jumped right into the inoculation debate, finding its fattest target in the prig who was always lecturing Bostonians—the Very Rev. Cotton Mather, D.D. At 58, he was the last avatar of a worldview that had exhausted itself in the 17th century, particularly during the Salem witchcraft crisis of 1692, which he had helped to bring about. It must have seemed as if the entire town was against him.

But in this instance, he knew what he was talking about. Through all of the opposition, he and Zabdiel Boylston persevered in their efforts to “Conquer the Dragon.” As the dreadful year continued and smallpox took its toll, the results began to tell. Inoculation was not perfect, but it was a far more effective response than doing nothing at all. When the epidemic had run its course, 5,889 people had contracted the disease (roughly half the town), and 844 people had died, or one in seven. Of the 242 who had been inoculated, only six had died–one in 40.

In the aftermath, Mather and Boylston were lionized for their courage, and Boylston was received with accolades in London, where he went for a long visit. Little is known about the fate of Onesimus, though Mather recorded that he was able to buy his freedom.

GOD KNOWS that Cotton Mather could be hard to take—one reason the New-England Courant found an immediate audience by attacking him. But in his openness to science and evidence, and his willingness to listen to an African living in his household, he showed a capacity for self-correction that redeemed some of his earlier failings. We will never know if he found redemption in the sense of the word he understood; but he found a meaningful second chance in 1721, and embraced it.

Boston was not quite out of the woods—other epidemics would come, often during wars that we remember with more clarity. But a smallpox vaccine, safer than amateur inoculation, was invented in 1796. Nearly 200 years later, in 1979, the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been eradicated. That immense victory, which took centuries to consummate, was brought closer by the knowledge that an African-Bostonian brought to a city where he was held in slavery at the beginning of the 18th century.

The episode is also fascinating for one final aftereffect. An important witness to the debate over inoculation was a 15-year-old boy, the younger brother of Cotton Mather’s chief tormentor in the Courant. Perhaps the most famous Bostonian of all time, Benjamin Franklin made his fortune, of course, by fleeing the city and its theological disputes for Philadelphia. As an adult, possibly with some acknowledgment that he and James had been too quick to ridicule an elderly minister trying to use science on behalf of humanity, Franklin would become an important advocate of inoculation, especially after his own son died of smallpox.

Franklin also had a personal encounter with Zabdiel Boylston in London, not long after the smallpox crisis, that changed his life. The young Franklin had run out of money and options, and Boylston helped him with a crucial loan of 20 guineas, despite the fact that Franklin and his brother had attacked his medical efforts throughout 1721. As an old man in Paris, Franklin met a young relative of Boylston’s and told him that he could never repay what that loan had meant to him at a low moment. “I owe everything I am to him,” he confided, before asking the young man what he could do for him.

Today, as anxiety leads many to see all of Africa as a potential source of infection, it may be time to revive a similar feeling of reciprocity—and an appreciation for what African medical knowledge meant to Boston during the most serious health crisis of its early history.

Ted Widmer is assistant to the president for special projects at Brown University and a senior research fellow with the New America Foundation. He is an Ideas columnist.

http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2014/10/17/how-african-slave-helped-boston-fight-smallpox/XFhsMMvTGCeV62YP0XhhZI/story.html?p1=Article_Trending_Most_Viewed

10 Things to Know About Thyroid Disease and Fatigue

10 Things to Know About Thyroid Disease and Fatigue<!–

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1. Fatigue and Hypothyroidism

Fatigue is a very common symptom of hypothyroidism – an underactive or low thyroid — in many patients. When the treatment for hypothyroidism is optimized , many patients report that their fatigue is lessened or even fully resolved.

2. Fatigue and Hyperthyroidism

Fatigue is a symptom of hyperthyroidism — an overactive or high thyroid — in some patients. In some cases, fatigue is present even after you’ve gotten a sufficient amount of sleep. In other cases, fatigue in hyperthyroidism may result from insomnia, anxiety, or disrupted sleep patterns. Typically, appropriate treatment for Graves’ disease and hyperthyroidism will help resolve fatigue associated with an overactive thyroid.

3. Fatigue and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Even when thyroid function tests show that the thyroid is “normal” and hormone levels fall within the reference range, the presence of elevated thyroid antibodies indicative of autoimmune Hashimoto’s disease or Graves’ disease can cause fatigue as a symptom in some patients.

4. Dietary Changes

Some thyroid patients — including those who do not have celiac disease or gluten intolerance — have reported a reduction in fatigue when they switch to a gluten-free diet , free of wheat and gluten products. Others have reported similar effects by eliminating sugar, or other inflammatory foods from the diet.

5. Unrefreshing Sleep

Some people experience fatigue due to what’s known as unrefreshing sleep. This means you’ve had enough sleep — usually seven or more hours — but you wake up and still feel tired, because the sleep was of poor quality, interrupted, or did not reach restorative levels. Unrefreshing sleep may be associated with adrenal dysfunction, as well as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia .

6. Iron

Some thyroid patients experiencing fatigue may be low in iron, in particular, the stored form of iron known as ferritin. It’s worth having ferritin levels checked by your physician, and if they are not optimal, talk to your doctor about supplementing with iron, or adding more iron to your diet through foods.An excess of iron, in particular a hereditary condition known as hemachromatosis, can also be associated with fatigue.

7. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia

If you have long-term, debilitating fatigue, and the fatigue is accompanied by other symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, a chronic sore throat, and/or body/muscle aches pains, you may have other conditions, known as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and/or fibromyalgia . these conditions are more common in thyroid patients than in the general population.

8. T3 and Natural Thyroid

Some thyroid patients on thyroid hormone replacement have reported an improvement in their fatigue levels when switching from a T4 only treatment (i.e., levothyroxine), to a T4/T3 treatment–for example, the addition of synthetic T3–or use of a natural desiccated thyroid drug .

9. Sleep Apnea

Thyroid patients are at greater risk of sleep apnea , where breathing stops for short periods during sleep. Sleep apnea can contribute greatly to fatigue. Thyroid patients experiencing fatigue should talk to a physician about having a sleep study or evaluation done to determine if sleep abnormalities — including apnea — may be contributing to the fatigue.

10. You Can Get Better Sleep

In addition to making sure you get optimal thyroid treatment for your condition, and address any sleep disorders , food sensitivities, and imbalances in iron levels, there are many other ways to ensure that you get sufficient sleep.But first, how much sleep do you need? According to the National Sleep Foundation most adults need a minimum of seven to eight hours per night, and a substantial percentage of us are not getting this amount of sleep on a regular basis.

Here are some tips to get to sleep, and get better sleep:

  • Try to keep the same sleep schedule weekdays and weekends
  • Keep your bedroom cool
  • Don’t watch television or work in your bedroom
  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol in the afternoon, and before bedtime
  • Don’t take naps.
  • Don’t exercise after dinner time
  • Take a hot shower or bath before bedtime
  • Use a sound conditioner or earplugs to block noise
  • Avoid large meals before bedtime
  • Increase light exposure during the day
  • Minimize light in your bedroom — Use blinds or blackout curtains, turn off television and computer at night, avoid illuminated clocks, and don’t read from backlit devices at night
  • Listen to relaxation or guided imagery tapes to help fall asleep
  • Don’t drink too much liquid in the evening
  • Limit changes in your work shifts
  • Drink an herbal or relaxation tea at bedtime
  • Have a bedtime snack with protein

Home to world’s smallest and biggest eggs

China: Home to world’s smallest and biggest eggs – Home – ShortList Magazine

China: Home to world’s smallest and biggest eggs

Insert egg-pun here

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A farmer was surprised to collect a super small egg from the chicken pen at their home in Yangzhou, eastern China’s Jiangsu Province. The tiny egg is just 2.5cm long and weighs 5 grams, equivalent to a 10 cent Chinese coin.

This comes two months after a farmer from Shuangliu in southwest China found that one of her chickens laid a huge 250g egg. Wang Yongbi said: “I’ve been raising chickens for more than 30 years but it’s the first time I’ve seen such a huge egg.” Wang said she fed the chickens no special food, but grains, maize and vegetable leaves. She added: “Normally the eggs are small”.

Which is interesting.

http://www.shortlist.com/home/china-home-to-worlds-smallest-and-biggest-eggs