Posts Tagged ‘ecofren camelia’

What is temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders facts

  • The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the site where the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible) temporomandibular joint meet.
  • TMJ disorders are a group of complex problems with many possible causes.
  • Symptoms of TMJ disorders include headache, ear pain, dizziness, and fullness or ringing in the ear.
  • There are many treatment options for TMJ disorders.

What is the temporomandibular joint?

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the area directly in front of the ear on either side of the head where the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible) meet. Within the TMJ, there are moving parts that allow the upper jaw to close on the lower jaw. This joint is a typical sliding “ball and socket” that has a disc sandwiched between it. The TMJ is used throughout the day to move the jaw, especially in biting and chewing, talking, and yawning. It is one of the most frequently used joints of the body.

The temporomandibular joints are complex and are composed of muscles, tendons, and bones. Each component contributes to the smooth operation of the TMJ. When the muscles are relaxed and balanced and both jaw joints open and close comfortably, we are able to talk, chew, or yawn without pain.

We can locate the TMJ by putting a finger on the triangular structure in front of the ear. The finger is moved just slightly forward and pressed firmly while opening the jaw. The motion felt is from the TMJ. We can also feel the joint motion if we put a little finger against the inside front part of the ear canal. These maneuvers can cause considerable discomfort to a person who is experiencing TMJ difficulty, and doctors use them for making the diagnosis.

What are TMJ disorders, and what are causes of TMJ disorders?

 

TMJ disorders are a group of complex problems of the jaw joint. TMJ disorders are also sometimes referred to as myofascial pain dysfunction and Costen’s syndrome. Because muscles and joints work together, a problem with either one can lead to stiffness, headaches, ear pain, bite problems (malocclusion), clicking sounds, or locked jaws. The following are behaviors or conditions that can lead to TMJ disorders.

  1. Teeth grinding and teeth clenching (bruxism) increase the wear on the cartilage lining of the TMJ. Those who grind or clench their teeth may be unaware of this behavior unless they are told by someone observing this pattern while sleeping or by a dental professional noticing telltale signs of wear and tear on the teeth. Many patients awaken in the morning with jaw or ear pain.
  2. Habitual gum chewing or fingernail biting
  3. Dental problems and misalignment of the teeth (malocclusion). Patients may complain that it is difficult to find a comfortable bite or that the way their teeth fit together has changed. Chewing on only one side of the jaw can lead to or be a result of TMJ problems.
  4. Trauma to the jaws: Previous fractures in the jaw or facial bones can lead to TMJ disorders.
  5. Stress frequently leads to unreleased nervous energy. It is very common for people under stress to release this nervous energy by either consciously or unconsciously grinding and clenching their teeth.
  6. Occupational tasks or habits such as holding the telephone between the head and shoulder may contribute to TMJ disorders.

What are common TMJ symptoms?

 

TMJ pain disorders usually occur because of unbalanced activity, spasm, or overuse of the jaw muscles. Symptoms tend to be chronic, and treatment is aimed at eliminating the precipitating factors. Many symptoms may not appear related to the TMJ itself. The following are common symptoms.

Headache: Approximately 80% of patients with a TMJ disorder complain of headache, and 40% report facial pain. Pain is often made worse while opening and closing the jaw. Exposure to cold weather or air-conditioned air may increase muscle contraction and facial pain.

Ear pain: About 50% of patients with a TMJ disorder notice ear pain and do not have signs of ear infection. The ear pain is usually described as being in front of or below the ear. Often, patients are treated multiple times for a presumed ear infection, which can often be distinguished from TMJ disorder by an associated hearing loss or ear drainage (which would be expected if there really was an ear infection). Because ear pain occurs so commonly, ear specialists are frequently called on to make the diagnosis of a TMJ disorder.

Sounds: Grinding, crunching, clicking, or popping sounds, medically termed crepitus, are common for patients with a TMJ disorder. These sounds may or may not be accompanied by increased pain.

Dizziness: Of patients with a TMJ disorder, 40% report a vague sense of dizziness or imbalance (usually not a spinning type vertigo). The cause of this type of dizziness is not well understood.

Fullness of the ear: About 33% of patients with a TMJ disorder describe muffled, clogged, or full ears. They may notice ear fullness and pain during airplane takeoffs and landings. These symptoms are usually caused by eustachian-tube dysfunction, the structure responsible for the regulation of pressure in the middle ear. It is thought that patients with TMJ disorders have hyperactivity (spasms) of the muscles responsible for regulating the opening and closing of the eustachian tube.

Ringing in the ear (tinnitus): For unknown reasons, 33% of patients with a TMJ disorder experience noise or ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Of those patients, half will have resolution of their tinnitus after successful treatment of their TMJ disorder.

What is the treatment for TMJ disorders?

 

The mainstay of treatment for acute TMJ pain is heat and ice, soft diet, and anti-inflammatory medications.

1. Jaw rest: It can be beneficial to keep the teeth apart as much as possible. It is also important to recognize when tooth grinding is occurring and devise methods to cease this activity. Patients are advised to avoid chewing gum or eating hard, chewy, or crunchy foods such as raw vegetables, candy, or nuts. Foods that require opening the mouth widely, such as a big hamburger, are also not recommended.

2. Heat and ice therapy: These assist in reducing muscle tension and spasm. However, immediately after an injury to the TMJ, treatment with cold applications is best. Cold packs can be helpful for relieving pain.

3. Medications: Anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil and others), naproxen (Aleve and others), or steroids can help control inflammation. Muscle relaxants, such as diazepam (Valium), aid in decreasing muscle spasms. In certain situations, local injection of cortisone preparations (methylprednisolone [Depo-Medrol], triamcinolone [Kenalog], Celestone) into the TMJ may be helpful.

4. Physical therapy: Passively opening and closing the jaw, massage, and electrical stimulation help to decrease pain and increase the range of motion and strength of the joint.

5. Stress management: Stress support groups, psychological counseling, and medications can also assist in reducing muscle tension. Biofeedback helps people recognize times of increased muscle activity and spasm and provides methods to help control them.

6. Occlusal therapy: A custom-made acrylic appliance (mouth guard) that fits over the teeth is commonly prescribed for night but may be required throughout the day. It acts to balance the bite and reduce or eliminate teeth grinding or clenching (bruxism).

7. Correction of bite abnormalities: Corrective dental therapy, such as orthodontics, may be required to correct an abnormal bite. Dental restorations assist in creating a more stable bite. Adjustments of bridges or crowns act to ensure proper alignment of the teeth.

8. Surgery: Surgery is indicated in those situations in which medical therapy has failed. It is done as a last resort. TMJ arthroscopy, ligament tightening, joint restructuring, and joint replacement are considered in the most severe cases of joint damage or deterioration.

 

What is the prognosis (outlook) of TMJ disorder?

The outlook of TMJ disorder depends on its particular cause. Sometimes simple stress management and jaw rest lead to recovery within days. More serious TMJ problems can require corrective orthodontics and surgery.

Can TMJ problems be prevented?

Yes. TMJ problems can often be prevented by using simple nighttime mouth guards. The dentist is the first line of defense in this setting.

REFERENCES:

Klippel, John H., et al., eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. New York: Springer and Arthritis Foundation, 2008.

http://www.onhealth.com/temporomandibular_joint__disorder/page4.htm

Ruddy, Shaun, et al., eds. Kelley’s Textbook of Rheumatology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001.

Treating back pain

Treating back pain

Treatments for back pain will vary depending on how long you have had the pain, how severe it is and your individual needs and preferences.

Short-term back pain

Most cases of back pain that last no longer than six weeks can be treated with over-the-counter painkillers and home treatments.

Painkillers

Paracetamol is effective in treating most cases of back pain. Some people find non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, more effective. A stronger painkiller, such as codeine, is also an option and is sometimes taken in addition to paracetamol.

If you also experience muscle spasms in your back, your GP may recommend a short course of a muscle relaxant, such as diazepam.

Painkillers can have side effects, some can be addictive and others may not be suitable, depending on your state of health. Your GP or a pharmacist will be able to give you advice about the most appropriate type of medication for you.

Read more about the medicines for back pain.

Hot and cold treatments

Some people find that heat – for example, a hot bath or a hot water bottle placed on the affected area helps ease the pain.

Cold, such as an ice pack or a bag of frozen vegetables, placed on the painful area is also effective. Do not put the ice directly on to your skin because it might cause a cold burn. Wrap the frozen pack in a wet cloth before applying it to the affected area.

Another option is to alternate between hot and cold using ice packs and hot compression packs or a hot water bottle. Hot compression packs can be bought at most larger pharmacies.

Sleeping position

Changing your sleeping position can take some of the strain off your back and ease the pain.

If you sleep on your side, draw your legs up slightly towards your chest and put a pillow between your legs. If you sleep on your back, placing a pillow under your knees will help maintain the normal curve of your lower back.

Relaxation

Trying to relax is a crucial part of easing the pain because muscle tension caused by worrying about your condition can make things worse.

Research suggests that people who manage to stay positive despite the pain tend to recover quicker and avoid long-term back pain.

 

Keep moving

Most experts now agree that staying in bed, lying down or being inactive for long periods is bad for your back.

People who remain active are likely to recover more quickly. This may be difficult at first if the pain is severe, but try to move around as soon as you can and aim to do a little more each day.

Activity can range from walking around the house to walking to the shops. You will have to accept some discomfort but avoid anything that causes a lot of pain.

There is no need to wait until you are completely pain-free before returning to work. Going back to work will help you return to a normal pattern of activity, and it can often distract you from the pain.

Exercise and lifestyle

Try to address the causes of your back pain to prevent further episodes. Common causes include being overweight, poor posture and stress.

Regular exercise and being active on a daily basis will help keep your back strong and healthy. Activities such as walkingswimming and yoga are popular choices.

The important thing is to choose an enjoyable activity that you can benefit from without feeling pain.

 

Long-term back pain

If you have had back pain for more than six weeks (known as chronic back pain), your GP will advise you about which painkillers to take and recommend the treatments listed below.

  • Exercise – usually take the form of a group class supervised by a qualified instructor. The classes may include exercises to strengthen your muscles and improve your posture, as well as aerobic and stretching exercises. NICE recommend a maximum of eight sessions over a period of up to 12 weeks.
  • Manual therapy – there are different types of manual therapy including manipulation, mobilisation and massage, usually carried out by chiropractors, osteopaths orphysiotherapists (chiropractic and osteopathy aren’t widely available on the NHS). NICE recommend a maximum of nine sessions over a period of up to 12 weeks.
  • Alexander technique – teaches you how to eliminate unnecessary muscular tension from your body. It aims to make you aware of any bad postural habits that you have while sitting or standing, as well as any inefficiencies in the way you move. You’ll learn how to improve the balance and alignment of your body.
  • Acupuncture – an ancient Chinese treatment where fine needles are inserted at different points in the body. It’s been shown to help reduce lower back pain. NICE recommend that an acupuncture course should include a maximum of 10 sessions over a period of up to 12 weeks.

These treatments are often effective for people whose back pain is seriously affecting their ability to carry out daily activities and who feel distressed and need help coping.

Nerve root blocks

A nerve root block is where a steroid or anaesthetic is injected into your back. If your back pain is caused by a trapped or inflamed nerve in your spinal column, the injection can help relieve the pain in your back, plus any associated leg pain.

To be effective, the injection needs to be made at exactly the right place in your back, so the procedure will be carried out under X-ray or CT guidance.

Facet joint injections

It is also possible to have anaesthetic or steroid injections in the facet joints. The facet joints are the joints that connect one vertebrae to another so that your spine is kept aligned. The joints are sometimes affected by arthritis. Facet joint injections are not always effective at relieving back pain.

Antidepressants

If the painkillers do not help, you will probably be prescribed tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as amitriptyline. TCAs were originally intended to treat depression, but they are also effective at treating some cases of persistent pain.

If you are prescribed a TCA to treat persistent back pain, the dose is likely to be very small.  See medicines for back pain for more information.

Counselling

If the treatments described above are not effective, you may be offered counselling to help you deal with your condition.

While the pain in your back is very real, how you think and feel about your condition can make it worse. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) works by helping you to manage your back pain better by changing how you think about your condition.

Studies have shown that people who have had CBT later reported lower levels of pain. They were also more likely to remain active and take regular exercise, further reducing the severity of their symptoms.

Surgery

Surgery for back pain is usually only recommended when all other treatment options have failed.

Surgery may be recommended if your back pain is so severe or persistent that you are unable to sleep or carry out your day-to-day activities. The type of surgery will depend on the type of back pain you have and its cause.

For example, a procedure known as a discectomy may be used if you have a prolapsed disc. The discs are the circular, spongy tissue between the vertebrae that help cushion your spine. A prolapsed disc is where the hard outer membrane of the disc is damaged, causing the soft, jelly-like fluid inside to leak out.

A discectomy involves removing the damaged part of the disc through an incision made in your back. It is now possible for surgeons to carry out the procedure using a very small incision and a microscope or magnifying lenses to find the damaged disc. This minimizes the amount of trauma to the surrounding tissue, reduces the pain and discomfort in the affected area and results in a smaller scar.

Spinal fusion surgery is a less common surgical procedure where the joint that is causing pain is fused to prevent it moving.

As bone is living tissue, it is possible to join two or more vertebrae together by placing an additional section of bone in the space between them. This prevents the damaged vertebrae irritating or compressing nearby nerves, muscles and ligaments, and reduces the symptoms of pain.

Spinal fusion is a complicated procedure and the results are not always satisfactory. For example, you may still experience some degree of pain and loss of movement following surgery.

Before you agree to have surgery to treat back pain, you should fully discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure being recommended with your surgeon.

Other treatments

A number of other treatments are sometimes used to treat long-term back pain. However, they are not recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) due to a lack of evidence about their effectiveness. They include:

  • low level laser therapy – where low energy lasers are focused on your back to try to reduce inflammation and encourage tissue repair
  • interferential therapy (IFT) – where a device is used to pass an electrical current through your back to try to accelerate healing while stimulating the production of endorphins (the body’s natural painkillers)
  • therapeutic ultrasound – where ultrasound waves are directed at your back to accelerate healing and encourage tissue repair
  • transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) – where a TENS machine is used to deliver small electrical pulses to your back through electrodes (small sticky patches) that are attached to your skin; the pulses stimulate endorphin production and prevent pain signals travelling from your spine to your brain
  • lumbar supports – where cushions, pillows and braces are used to support your spine
  • traction – where a pulling force is applied to your spine
  • injections – where painkilling medication is injected directly into your back

Page last reviewed: 21/02/2013

sweet cherry

2600196151_599a0ba6646c42RHS_PUB0000579_294777 Cherry-Limeade-Sangria-Cocktail-Recipe-RecipeGirl.com_g-cherries

JAMU (TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE)

JAMU (TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE)
and TRADITIONAL COSMETICS

JAMU

‘Back to nature’ is not merely a slogan in Java and Indonesia. The visible proof is the use of traditional herbal medicine of various type of ‘medical plants’, either from the leaves, the fruits, the roots, the flowers or the barks, etc.

These herbal medicine had been used since the ancient time up to now, it is largely consumed by people of different level; lower, middle and upper, in the villages and in the big cities.

The study of jamu had been conducted by Rumphius, a botanist as early as the year 1775 AD by publishing a book ‘Herbaria Amboinesis’. A scientific research for jamu by the research center of herbal medicine in Bogor Botanical Garden, resulting a publication of a book ‘Medical Book for Children and Adults’, composed by E. Van Bent.

The first seminar about jamu has been held in Solo in 1940, followed by a Formation of Indonesia’s Jamu Committee in 1944. In the 1966, a seminar on jamu was held again. In 1981, a book by title of ‘The use of Medical Plants’ was established to support the jamu industry in the country.

The method of using the jamu remains the same as the ancestors did. Some are consumed by drinking it and some are for outside application.

At present one could buy easily ready made jamu packed modernly in the form of powder, pills, capsules, drinking liquid and ointments. Of course there are still jamu shops, which sell only ingredients or prepare the jamu on spot as required by buyers. Some women are roaming the street to sell jamu, is a common view across the country.

The traditional methods of making jamu such as by boiling the prepared herbal ingredients (jamu godok) still prevail in Javanese society. The popular traditional tools of making jamu are still available in many Javanese houses such as; Lumpang (small iron Mortar), pipisan, parut (grater), kuali (clay pot), etc.

What kind of disease could jamu cure?
The reply is almost every disease, jamu could cure. There are various kinds of jamu to combat different kind of illness. In Principle there are two types of jamu; the first is jamu to maintain physical fitness and health, the locally popular are Galian Singset (to keep women body fit and slim) and Sehat Lelaki (to keep men body healthy). The second is jamu to cure various kinds of illness. Except the above, there are special jamu created with the purpose to maintain a loving family harmony. The popular products among other are Sari Rapet, which makes a women sexual organ in a good condition, as for the man the matched product is jamu Kuat Lekaki (strong man). The Javanese are also taking a great care to pregnant women during pre and postnatal period by producing the related jamu. There are also jamu for the babies.

The Herbs for Jamu
There are hundreds of herbs for jamu prescriptions, among other are:

Spices
Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)
Lempuyang (Zingiber Oronaticum)
Temu Lawak/ Wild Ginger (Curcuma Cautkeridza)
Kunyit/ Tumeric (Curcuma Domestica)
Kencur/ Greater Galingale (Kaemferi Galanga)
Lengkuas/ Ginger Plant (Elpina Galanga)
Bengle (Zingiber Bevifalium)

Leaves
Secang (Caesalpinia Sappan Hinn)
Sambang Dara (Rexco Ecaria Bicolar Hassk)
Brotowali (Tiospora Rumpii Boerl)
Adas (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill)

Fruits
Jeruk Nipis/ Calamondin (Citrae Aurantifalia Sivingle)
Ceplukan (Physalic Angulata Him)
Nyamplung (Calophylum Inaphyllu)

Barks
Kayu Manis/ Cinamon (Gijeyzahyza Glabra)

Flowers
Melati/ Yasmin (Jataninum Sunbac Ait)
Rumput Alang-alang (Gramineae)

It is worth to note that some jamu factories in Java are exporting its products. Besides the export of ready made jamu, 25 kinds of herbal plants and ingredients are also in the list of export to Europe, Australia, USA, Japan, etc.

No Side Effects
The people like to consume jamu due to :

  • Availability in many places
  • Comparatively cheap price
  • No side effects

TRADITIONAL COSMETICS

The Natural Beauty of Woman
A Javanese woman is very much concern for her physical appearance to be always slim, beautiful with an alluring bright smiling face.

As a Javanese idiom says “Ngadi Sarira” to maintain the body to be always in perfect condition is of prime important. The way of life of a Javanese is greatly influenced by the royal culture. Not surprisingly that the art of “Keeping Beauty’ is originated from the court palaces.

The Secret of a Princess Beauty
The Ladies of the Royal Families have a reputation to inherit the beauty of goddesses from paradise.

As told in the story of wayang (leather puppet) by the dalang (puppet master) , all parts of a princess body is always perfect and alluring: the beautiful black thick hair, a smooth skin, bright eyes, charming eye brows, eye lids and nose, bright reddish lips, white nicely teeth, wonderful built neck and shoulder, beautiful hands and arms, a waist like the one of a bee meanings slim and perfectly built.

The dalang with a clear deep voice, like in the poem reading adores the beauty of a princess with a thousands of words. It seems that all words of a complete dictionary are not enough to express of what a wonderful beauty a princess has.

The use of Traditional Jamu and Cosmetics
Nowadays, some secrets of this Karaton (Palaces) culture of “Ngadi Sarira” are known by many women from outside the Karaton walls. The Jamu is widely used to give an inner beauty, due to a good physical health.

Some of the products are consumed directly by eating it, for instance Kepel Fruit (a brown fruit of a chicken egg size), it’s a natural deodorant. By eating it that would fragrant the odor of the body even the urine smells the fragrance of that fruit.

Jambu Mawar ( a kind of rose apple, mawar means a flower of rose) gives a fresh smell of breath. Some cosmetics are for outside application such as bedak dingin (cool powder) and lulur (scrubbing powder).

Beauty Care
Every woman is always proud of her hair – thick and shining, color and style. For natural shampooing, the ash of rice stalks work as a shampoo to clean the hair. After being washed by water, ingredients consist of
coconut milk, jeruk purut (a kind of citrus fruit smells like a lime ) and pandanus leaves are to be applied. It functions as a conditioner to clean the dandruff. The hair then washed by water again, to be dried while vaporizing with ratus fragrance.

Finally, a hair oil by the name of cemceman, made of coconut oil with pandanus , kenanga flower, jeruk purut etc. is applied.

Skin Care
For face caring, bedak dingin (cool powder) is applied. It’s made from tendered rice with special ingredients, such as pandanus, kenanga flower etc.

For other parts of the body, lulur is applied, popularly known as mandi lulur (lulur bathing).

Lulur is also made from tendered rice, pandanus, some leaves of kemuning (with yellow color) and some medicinal roots. The lulur should stimulate the body to throw out the dead cells, replace it with new ones, stimulate blood circulation under the skin, smooth the skin and at the same time scents it.

Steaming the body
Steams of several boiled herbs are applied to ensure body freshness, including the woman organ. The steaming took about a ½ hour.

Producers
Besides the traditional cosmetics made by hand, in the country there are some big and well known manufactures of cosmetics, using modern machinery. These products are used widely across the country, even this cosmetics have been exported to many countries of the world.

 

http://www.joglosemar.co.id/jamu.html

(Suryo S. Negoro)

Electronic Pest Control Devices

Electronic Pest Control Devices

Numerous electronic pest control devices are readily available in Alaska and just about every where. They are advertised on late night television “infomercials”, through mail order catalogs, and on the internet. Hardware stores and garden centers usually stock some sort of electronic device advertised to repel a variety of pests. Although these devices have been around for at least 20 years, they have only recently become popular and widely advertised, probably due to their environmentally friendly claims. There is a wide range of opinion about these devices, some people claim that they work for them, others claim they are not effective at all. While electronic pest control devices remain a controversial topic, there has never been any scientific evidence proving them as effective. Since these devices are not regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the EPA does not require the same kind of efficacy testing that it does for chemical pesticides. Adequate testing for adverse health effects as well as performance data for these devices are seriously lacking.

Types of Devices
There are basically two types of electronic pest control devices widely available, these are Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic.

 

Ultrasonic devices operate by emitting short wavelength, high frequency sound waves too high in pitch to be heard by the human ear ? that is, all frequencies greater than 20,000 Hz. Humans can hear frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hz but as we age, we become less sensitive to the higher frequencies. (Long wavelength, low frequencies ? below 20 Hz ? are called infrasound and are also inaudible to humans.) Although it’s implied that ultrasound has special properties that make it more repellent than audible sound, there’s no evidence to support this.

 

We can’t hear ultrasound because our eardrums can’t vibrate fast enough, but some animals such as dogs, bats and rodents can hear well into the ultrasonic range. Some insects, such as grasshoppers and locusts can detect frequencies from 50,000Hz to 100,000 Hz, and moths and lacewings can detect ultrasounds as high as 240,000 Hz produced by insect-hunting bats.

 

Insects detect sound by special hairs or sensilla located on the antennae (mosquitoes) or genitalia (cockroaches), or by more complicated tympanal organs (grasshoppers, locusts, moths and butterflies).

 

But just because they can detect ultrasonic waves doesn’t mean that they’re controlled or repelled by it.

 

Cockroaches, for instance, initially respond by moving about a bit more than usual, but don’t appear overly eager to escape from the sound waves. This includes devices that emit uniform frequency as well as changing frequencies of ultrasound. Rodents adjust to the ultrasound (or any new sound) and eventually ignore it. At best, ultrasonic waves have only a partial or temporary effect on rodents. Numerous studies have rejected ultrasonic sound as a practical means of rodent control.

 

Ultrasound has not been shown to drive rodents from buildings or areas, nor has it been proven to cause above normal mortality in rodent populations. Some people that have used them claim that they work for them, so we cannot rightfully say that should never be used, but the evidence points toward these devices not being worth the money, time or effort.

 

Tests of commercial ultrasonic devices have indicated that rodents may be repelled from the immediate area of the ultrasound device for a few minutes to a few days, but they will nearly always return and resume normal activities. Other tests have shown that the degree of repellence depends on the frequency, intensity, and the pre-existing condition of the rodent infestation. The intensity of such sounds must be so great that damage to humans or domestic animals would also be likely. Commercial ultrasonic pest control devices do not produce sounds of such intensity.

 

Electromagnetic pest repelling devices claim to alter the electromagnetic (EM) field of your household wiring to turn your whole home into a giant pest repeller, driving all pests out of the walls of your home. One such device called Pest Offense® is widely advertised on late night television using pseudoscientific jargon and scare tactics, such as reading the warning labels from pesticide containers which were obviously selected from agricultural chemicals, not household pesticides available to the general public.

 

Electromagnetic fields are present in every appliance that operates on electricity. When an appliance is switched on, a very weak electromagnetic (EM) field develops around the current-carrying wiring in your home.

 

An Australian test lab looked at the electronics of one of these devices. When plugged in, it generates a pulse in the electrical current (which also makes the little indicator light switch on and off). This causes the electrical current in the house wiring to fluctuate, which in turn makes the EM field fluctuate. This supposedly creates an intolerable environment for the pests.

 

However, this device draws only a very small amount of current compared to normal household appliances. Even an incandescent light bulb draws considerably more current than the pest device. This means that the EM field strength generated by the device is very small even when compared to a light bulb.

 

One has to wonder whether insects and rodents can even detect these low level EM fields. Supposedly, it’s the fluctuations in the current that drives out these pests but if they can’t detect the low level EM field then they couldn’t possibly detect the fluctuations, and even if they could, one needs to question whether or not they are repelled by them.

 

Scientific Evidence
We searched the peer-reviewed scientific literature and found no scientific test data or University tests giving any evidence that these devices actually operate as advertised. According to the National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP), Dr. William B. Jackson, of Bowling Green State University conducted several tests of an Ultrasonic device called Pest Patrol®. These tests reportedly showed a “statistically significant decrease in mouse activity in two of the [Pest Patrol®] chambers.” However, we cannot verify this information since, when contacted Dr. Jacksons’ office referred us to an attorney. At the time of this writing, the manufacturers of the Pest Patrol® (Lentek International) are in litigation with the FTC regarding alleged false advertising cliams about their devices. (see: FTC Charges Lentek with making false claims)

 

We contacted several major manufacturers of the devices available locally in Alaska for scientific data to back up their product’s claims. None of those contacted would (or could) provide us with any useful test data. One of the manufacturers claimed they had the data, but “misplaced it”. The one manufacturer that did supply us with data submitted physical test data, that is, they provided frequency ranges, wattage usage rates, fire safety test data, and customer testimonials, but no scientifically proven pest repellent efficacy test data. In light of this lack of evidence, we decided to conduct our own field test.

 

We purchased several of the devices available in local Alaska hardware stores and garden centers. We spent an average of $19.00 per device, with prices ranging from $4.99 to $35.99.  Each device we tested were advertised to repel insects and rodents. We placed them in Alaska homes, restaurant kitchens, and warehouses, where known insect or rodent infestations existed. We installed the devices according to the manufacturers directions. We allowed the devices to work for a minimum of 3 days, and a maximum of one month. During this time we took glue trap counts daily to monitor actual insect and rodent populations and compared them to the numbers of these pests caught before the devices were plugged in. In all cases average trap counts after the devices had been in operation did not deviate significantly from average trap counts taken before the devices were installed.

 

Conclusions
There is no electronic pest control device, either ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or any combination of these, scientifically proven to repel, mitigate, irritate, kill, or otherwise effect any animal or insect to any degree that would be effective enough to justify their use. Rodents may be temporarily repelled, but they simply avoid the sound by going behind objects that deflect it. Eventually, says the Federal Trade Commission the rodents get used to it.

 

Pets can hear the ultrasonic devices and a study done by the Purdue University Veterinary School found the devices cause hearing loss in dogs and cats.

 

Some gadgets claim to create an ”electromagnetic field” to repel pests, these devices do not produce a field of such intensity required to have any effect. There is no scientific evidence that any of these devices will work.

 

Ultrasound has not been shown to drive rodents from buildings or areas, nor has it been proven to cause above normal mortality in rodent populations. Some people that have used them claim that they work for them, so we cannot rightfully say that should never be used, but the evidence points toward these devices not being worth the money, time or effort.

 

Tests of commercial ultrasonic devices have indicated that rodents may be repelled from the immediate area of the ultrasound device for a few minutes to a few days, but they will nearly always return and resume normal activities. Other tests have shown that the degree of repellency depends on the frequency, intensity, and the pre-existing condition of the rodent infestation. The intensity of such sounds must be so great that damage to humans or domestic animals would also be likely. Commercial ultrasonic pest control devices do not produce sounds of such intensity.

 

Since these devices are often expensive and of questionable effectiveness, they cannot be recommended as a solution to rodent or insect problems.

 

FTC Cracks Down on Manufacturers
In May 2001, the Federal Trade Commission sent warning letters to 60 companies selling these devices warning them not to make claims without scientific evidence. see: http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2001/05/fyi0128.htm

 

In August of 2002, the FTC has charged Lentek International with making false claims that their electronic mosquito repellent devices repel mosquitoes. see: http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2002/08/lentek.htm
 
Sources: National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. Pesticides and You”, Volume 22, Number 2, Fall 2002, page 2.
Federal Trade Commission. News Releases, www.ftc.gov
Consumers Choice, Australian Consumers Group www.choice.com.au.

nice butt exercise

Get A Bangin’
Fit Booty

Whether you want a bangin’ booty like Beyonce or enviable buns like Jessica Biel, the only way you’re going to get the gluteus of your dreams is by getting your sweat on. Cornel Chin, fitness troubleshooter to the stars and author of Celebrity Body on a Budget, recommends the following five butt exercises to get a fit — and camera-worthy — derriere.

1. Unilateral Hip Extension

Start position: Place your left knee on the bottom of an incline bench. Bend your elbows and place your forearms across the top of the bench so they support your body weight. Keep your core muscles engaged, and don’t let your back arch.

Movement: Slowly raise your right leg as high as comfortably possible, keeping it straight throughout the move. Contract your glutes and then slowly lower your right leg, returning back to the start position.

Perform: Do 1 set of 12 to 15 repetitions with your right leg then repeat the exercise with your left leg.

Chin says: As you get stronger, increase the number of sets and/or add ankle weights for more resistance

 

 

Unilateral Hip Extension

2. One-legged deadlifts

Start position: Extend your left leg back slightly, lightly resting on the toes of your left foot. Hold a dumbbell in each hand in front of the thighs.

Movement: Hinge from your hips and lower the weights towards the floor as low as your flexibility allows. Keep your back flat or with a natural arch and ensure you keep your abs contracted to protect your back. Squeeze your glutes of the working leg to raise back up.

Perform: Do 1 set of 10 to 12 reps with your left leg back then repeat the exercise with your right leg back.

Chin says: Deadlifts are highly effective for your glutes, lower back and hamstrings, but this single-legged version is ideal to add intensity to the exercise and engage your stabilizer muscles to keep your body balanced. Form is paramount and you should avoid this exercise if you have back problems.

One-legged deadlifts

http://www.sheknows.com/videos/articles/816101/5-best-butt-exercises-1/page:2

Lunges

3. Lunges

Start position: Stand tall with your feet hip-distance apart, hands on your hips.

Movement: Step your right foot forward and lower your body towards the floor while keeping your back up straight. You’ll be bending both of your knees; the right knee should be at a 90 degree angle (if it isn’t, step your right foot further forward, aiming to keep your knee over your ankle when you lower down) while your left knee lowers towards the floor.

Perform: Do 2 to 3 sets of 12 to 15 reps on each leg.

Chin says: This is such a dynamic exercise as it recruits so many muscles at the same time. What’s also great about lunges is the many variations: front lunges, walking lunges, reverse lunges, side to side lunges and wheel lunges (front, side, reverse). You can also elevate the back foot on a step or platform for a tougher workout on both legs.

4. Step Ups

Start position: Place your right foot on a step or platform of at least 12 to 15 inches high. Make sure your knee is bent at a 90 degree angle (knee above ankle) for safety.

Movement: Pushing through your right heel on the platform, straighten your right leg as you bring your left toe up to the step or platform. Lower your left foot down slowly, barely touching the toes of your left foot to the floor.

Perform: Do 2 to 3 sets of 12 to 15 reps on each leg.

Chin says: This is a popular tried and tested exercise that really targets the glutes. You’ll notice the difference when you take it slow and concentrate on the working leg.

Step Ups

5. Squats

Start position: Stand with feet hip-width apart, folding your arms across your chest. Keep your feet flat but place your weight on your heels.

Movement: Hinge at the hips and bend your knees as you sit your rear back as if a chair is behind you. Keep your back straight, abdominal muscles tight, and knees behind your toes as you lower down. Squeeze your glutes to straighten up and return to start position.

Perform: Repeat for 2 to 3 sets of 12 to 15 reps. As you get stronger, add weights or resistance bands for more intensity.

Chin says: Good old traditional squats are simply one of the best exercises you can do for your butt, thighs and hips. There are several variations of squats, ranging from standard squats with your feet hip-width apart or with the use of a chair or bench to act as a marker when squatting. Add dumbbells, resistance bands and core boards, and you will stimulate your glutes and other target areas even more.

Breast cancer

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